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GUINEA PIG B 

The 56 year experiment 



R. Buckminster Fuller 



Critical Path Publishing, California 



Guinea Pig B. Copyright © 1983 The Estate of R. Buckminstcr Fuller. 
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. 
No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner 
whatsoever without written permission except in the case 
of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews. 

For information, address 

Critical Path Publishing 

PO Box 1073, Clayton, CA 94517 

Email: info@criticalpathpublishing.org Phone: 925.672.4464 
www.criticalpathpublishing.org 

Reprinted with the permission of the Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller. 
Guinea Pig B was first published as the introduction to the book, 
Inventions, 'Ihe Patented Works of R. Buckminster Fuller, St. Martins 
Press, 1983, ISBN 0-312-43477-4* It was also published in Buckminster 
Fuller, Anthology for the New Millennium, St. Martins Press, 2001, 
ISBN 0-312-26639-1. 

For more information on Fuller's life and work please contact: 
The Buckminster Fuller Institute 
181 N nth St, Suite 402 
Brooklyn, NY 11211 
Phone: 718.290.9280 

Or see their comprehensive web site: www.bfi.org 

Critical Path Publishing Edition 
First Printing, April 2003 
Second Printing, February 2004 
Third Printing, March 2008 
ISBN 0-9740605-0-X 

Library of Congress Control Number: 2003105014 

Cover and book design by 

Cause Change, Design 6c Creative: info@causcchange.com 

Cover and inside photos by 

Wcrnher Krutcin: www.photovault.com 

Printing by Sccord Printing: www.secordprinting.com 



Printed on recycled paper 



APPRECIATION 



One of the main reasons Critical Path Publishing (CPP) exists 
is to get R. Buckminster Fuller material into the hands of as 
many people as possible. Reprinting books by him is one way to 
accomplish this. CPP feels that the experiment that Bucky (as he was 
affectionately known) committed his life to resulted in discoveries and 
perspectives that are exactly what humanity needs in order to live on 
"Spaceship Earth "together in optimal harmony, balance, and prosperity. 
Bucky felt humanity is positioned to "carry on in a far more 
intelligent way than ever before." Having his work widely accessible 
is an important part of actualizing his realization that humanity is 
designed for, and has the option to be, an incredible success. We all 
can play a role in this scenario and Bucky s ideas/tcaching/results are 
a wonderful example of the possibilities. 

Guinea Pig B could not have been published without the help 
and services of may people who are very special to CPP: To Jaime 
Snyder and John Ferry of the R. Buckminster Fuller Estate for 
encouragement, permission, support, and guidance; to Allegra 
Fuller Snyder for a wonderful introduction; to Bob Schildgen for 
quality editing of non-Bucky material; to Werhner Krutein for 
exquisite photos; to Ken Secord of Secord Printing for printing 
and delivering this book with extremely thoughtful, efficient, and 
exemplary service; to CPP shareholders for their continuing support, 
and an extra special appreciation to AJ. Ross, a masterful designer, 
who designed the fabulous cover and the book's layout while paying 
close attention to all of the details that resulted in this inspiring 
addition to the extraordinary legacy of R. Buckminster Fuller. 
Thank you all for sharing our vision and for your unselfish and 
synergetic contributions. 

With humble and unbounded appreciation, 
Critical Path Publishing 



INTRODUCTION 



I think my father was very honest in his appraisal of himself. 
He said he felt he was just an average human being. I think he was a 
very average man who developed a strategy to take full advantage of 
his capabilities, capabilities that arc inherent in all of us. I think it is 
important to recognize that it took him about thirty-two years to sort 
out his priorities and for him to understand himself well enough to 
really pursue the course of action that he then pursued. It was a course 
of action that demanded his full integrity in listening to himself, in 
challenging himself, and at the same time being deeply aware of all 
that surrounded him. 

Yes, I think he was an average man, but he developed certain 
qualities within himself that changed the ordinary into more than 
ordinary. First, 1 think, is discipline: self- discipline. He was very 
demanding of himself and had exquisite ability to respond to these 
demands. On my mother and fathers 25 th wedding anniversary, as a 
gift to my mother, he decided he would stop smoking and drinking. 
My father, as was very typical of a young man growing up in his time, 
had been an enthusiastic social drinker and he was a good pack-a-day 
cigarette smoker. On that very day, he stopped both smoking and 
drinking, for the rest of his life. This, to me, was an "extra" ordinary 
example of his self-discipline. About ten years later he had gained 
quite a lot of weight. So he put himself on a high protein diet, which 
he remained on almost until the end of his life. He lost some forty or 
fifty pounds. These are things that each of us can do. It just takes the 
challenge that my father was willing to pose to himself. 

His thinking was as disciplined. He was meticulous in challenging 
his own thoughts and ideas, making sure that he was thinking 
clearly, that he was not relying on someone else s hearsay but basing 
his own thoughts and ideas on his own experience. When he read 
anything he always had a dictionary close at hand because he never let 
himself look at a word, that he didn't fully understand, and pass it by. 
He must understand not only its meaning but also its root. He would 
then be very disciplined in using that word correctly; using it in the 
way he felt was inherent in the word itself. This discipline, in later 



years, resulted in his making new words for himself when he found no 
term that adequately expressed his thought. This sometimes makes a 
first reading of some of his work challenging for others because they 
also need a Buckminster Fuller dictionary close at hand in order to 
understand what he was really getting at. Incidentally such a series of 
volumes does exist, though not readily available. It is the wonderful 
Synergetics Dictionary, which was edited by E.J. Applewhite. 

He also arrived at the decision to make sense-not money, and 
never take a job just to earn money. He made that decision with 
responsibility as well as discipline. This sense of responsibility grew 
to encompass a sense of one mans responsibility to all of humanity. 
His root of responsibility was a sense that his actions always had 
repercussions and reactions on others. He must always make decisions 
that were fully predicated on a sense of equal responsibility to himself, 
to his family, and to the world. 

His course of action for himself and for others was not easy. I think 
my mother, his wife of sixty-seven years, played an extraordinary 
role in making his course of action possible. She was a very strong 
person, full of very quiet dignity. She was completely supportive of 
my fathers decisions and lifestyle because, I think, she was very clear 
about herself and who she was. There was a sense of strength that he 
received from her. She was always there, in no way a "yes" person, but 
nevertheless completely supportive. 

And what were they like as parents? They taught me to grow up 
to be myself. That is the essence of what we all should be, but to also 
understand that really being yourself required self discipline and 
responsibility. They allowed something to emerge in me that was both 
uniquely me and yet at the same time average because I was simply 
being what I was capable of being - what we are all capable of being. 
I think that is what this little book is about. And it is a very exciting 
idea because it is powerful in its simplicity. 

~AUegra Fuller Snyder 
April 2003 



GUINEA PIG B 



i am now close to 88 and I am confident that the only thing 
important about me is that I am an average healthy human. 
I am also a living case history of a thoroughly documented, half-century, 
search-and-research project designed to discover what, if anything, an 
unknown, moneyless individual, with a dependent wife and newborn 
child, might be able to do effectively on behalf of all humanity that 
could not be accomplished by great nations, great religions or private 
enterprise, no matter how rich or powerfully armed. 

I started out fifty-six years ago, at the age of 32, to make that 
experiment. By good fortune I had acquired a comprehensive 
experience in commanding and handling ships, first as a sailor in 
Penobscot Bay, Maine, and later as a regular U.S. naval officer. The 
navy is inherently concerned with not only all the world s oceans, 
but also the worlds dry land emanating exportable resources and 
import necessities and the resulting high seas commerce. The navy 
is concerned with all vital statistics. I saw that there was nothing to 
stop me from thinking about our total planet Earth and thinking 
realistically about how to operate it on an enduringly sustainable basis 
as the magnificent human-passengered spaceship that it is. 

Planet Earth is a superbly conceived and realized 
6,586,242,500,000,000,000,000-ton (over 6.5 sextillion tons) spaceship, 
cruise-speeding frictionlessly and soundlessly on an incredibly 
accurate celestial course. Spaceship Earths spherical passenger deck 
is largely occupied by a 140-million-square-mile "swimming pool," 
whose three principal widenings arc called oceans. 

Upon the surface of the "swimming pool," humanity is playing 
high-profit gambling games with oil-loaded ships. The largest of 
all such ships in all history is a quarter-mile-long tanker of 580,000 
tons. At top speed it can cross the 3,000-mile-wide Atlantic Ocean 
in six days. That 3,000-mile, six-day tanker distance is traveled every 
two and one-half minutes by the eleven-quadrillion-times-heavicr 
Spaceship Earth, which has been moving at this fast rate for at least 
seven billion years with no signs of slowing or ^running out of gas." 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 1 



As it travels around the Sun at 66,000 m.p.h., it also rotates at an 
equatorial velocity of 1,000 m.p.h. 

The units of time and energy expenditures as "matter" or "work" 
necessary to structure, equip, and operate all the transcendent-to- 
human contrivings, biological and chemical organisms and equipment, 
and their "natural" operational events, including the time-energy 
units invested in creating and operating volcanoes, earthquakes, 
seaquakes, and tornadoes, as well as to accomplish this fully equipped 
and complexedly passengered planet Earth's 66,000 m.p.h. cosmic- 
highway-traveling speed, stated in the terms of time and energy 
expended per each ton-mile accomplished at that speed, produces a 
numerical figure of a staggering magnitude of energy expending. 

This staggering energy-expenditure figure for operating planet 
Earth is in turn utterly belittled when compared to the sum of the 
same units of time-energy expenditures for structuring, equipping, 
integrally operating, and moving all of the asteroids, moons, and 
planets as well as the stars themselves of each of all the known 
approximately 100 billion other star systems of our Milky Way 
galaxy, as well as of all the asteroids, moon, and planets, and stars of 
all the approximately 100 billion star systems of each of all the other 
two billion galaxies thus far discovered by Earthians to be present 
and complexedly interacting and co-intershunting with Spaceship 
Earth in our astro-episode neighborhood of eternally regenerative 
scenario Universe. 

All of these "really real" cosmic energy expenditures may be 
dramatically compared with, and their significance considered in 
respect to the fact that, the total of all energy used daily - 95 percent 
wastefully by all humans for all purposes aboard Spaceship Earth 
amounts to less than one-millionth of t percent of Spaceship Earth s 
daily income of expendable energy imported from the Universe 
around and within us. 

A vast overabundance of this Earthian cosmic energy income is now 
technically impoundable and distributable to humanity by presently 
proven technology. We are not allowed to enjoy this primarily because 
taxhungry government bureaucracies and moneydrunk big business 
can't figure a way of putting meters between these cosmic energy 
sources and the Earthian passengers, so nothing is done about it. 



2 GUINEA PIG B 



The technical equipment - steel plows, shovels, wheelbarrows, 
boilers, copper tubing, etc. - essential to individuals' successful 
harvesting of their own cosmic energy income cannot be economically 
produced in the backyard kitchen, garage, or studio without the large 
scale industrial tools' production elsewhere of industrial materials and 
tools- that-make -tools involving vast initial capital investments. If big 
business and big government don't want to amass and make available 
adequate capital for up-to-date technological tooling, people will 
rarely be able to tap the cosmic energy income, except by berry-, nut-, 
mushroom-, or applepicking and by fishing, 

Volumetrically, S.S. Earth is a 256-billion-cubic-mile spherical 
vessel of 8,000-miles beam (diameter), having at all times 100 
million of its approximately 200 million square miles of spherical 
surface always exposed to the Sun - with the other hemisphere 
always in nighttime shadow - bringing about enormous atmospheric, 
temperature, and pressure differentials and all their resultant high- 
low weather-produced winds that create all the waves thunderously 
crashing on all the trillions of miles of our around-rhe-world 
shorelines. The atmospheric temperature differentials in turn 
induce the electromagnetic potential differentials that transform 
the atmosphere into rain-and lightning-charged clouds from Sun- 
evaporated waters of the three-fourths-ocean-and-sea-covered Earth. 

Gravity's ability to hold together the planet itself, its waters, its 
biosphere, and other protective mantles, as well as to pull the rain 
to Earth, thus combines with the photosynthetic capability of 
the Earths vast vegetation to harvest solar radiation and store its 
energies in a manner readily and efficiently convertible into alcohols. 
The alcohols (four types) constitute the "Grand Central Reservoir" 
of cosmic-radiation and gravity-generated energy in its most 
immediately-convcrtiblc-into-human-use state - for instance, as high- 
octane motor fuels, synthetic rubber, and all other products misnamed 
*petro-chemical products" by their exploiters, whose petroleum is in 
reality a time-, pressure-, and heat-produced by-product of alcohol. 



R. BUCKMfNSTER FULLER 3 



Radiation is disintegrating because it is held 
together only at this end ot each of its energy- 
manifesting vectors. Disintegrating, the vectors 
can be angularly aimed, ergo focused. a 



Gravity is inherently integrated as a 
closed system with no ends, ergo is 
an Inherently closed system having 
twice the coherence integrity of 




equally energy-vectored radiation. 



Since destruction of humans in Universe would by our working 
assumption seem to be cosmically undesirable and to be accomplishable 
only by the anti-intelligent use of the mega-mega-concentrates 
of energy that humans have learned only recently how to produce 
and explosively detonate, it is vitally worth our while to stretch 
our conceptual faculties to understand the physical potentials and 
possible mystical significance of our most comprehensive inventory of 
cosmological and cosmoglogical information. 

The omni-conserved^onsimultaneouslyintertransformingenergies 
of eternally regenerative Universe consist most simply of a plurality of 
omnimagnitude syntropic convergences here and entropic divergences 
there. The syntropic convergences integrate as matter. The entropic 
divergences disintegrate as radiation. The convergently associative 
function is gravitational!)' integrative and inherently nondivisible and 
nondifferentiable until convergently realized as matter. 

The radiated disintegration of matter, on the other hand, is 
inherently differentiable and subdivisible, ergo assignable to a 
plurality of distinctly separated, vastly remote interminglings with 



4 GUINEA PIG B 



illions of other systems entropkally separatcd-out atomic constituents, 
thereafter individually to intermingle tentatively and in progressive 
syntropy as one of myriads of entirely new star systems. 

Radiation is inherently focusable and shadowable; gravity is 
inherently nonfocusable and shadowless. All the stars are atomic- 
energy-generating "plants." The star Sun is a hydrogen-into-helium 
intcrtransformative regenerator of radiation. The sun operates 
internally at a heat of 26,000,000 degrees Centigrade - a scale on 
which o degrees represents the freezing point and 100 degrees the 
boiling point of water. 

The cosmic design problem - with the solution of which we are 
now concerned - was that of employing a safe way of providing the 
right amount of exclusively star-emanating energy for developing 
and maintaining the critical-function-in-Universc-serving humans 
on the only planet having the right environment for both protecting 
and ecologically supporting those delicately, intricately designed 
humans, together with their physically and metaphysically critical 
functionings. 

The next star nearest to planet Earth - beyond the Sun - is 300,000 
times farther away from the Earth than is the Sun. In solving the 
'humans on Earth problem, it was therefore necessary to employ the 
cosmic facilities in such a manner as to transmit the appropriate amount 
of the specific radiation constituents in nonlethal concentration from 
the Sun, the star nearest to the human-incubating planet Earth - the 
planet having not only the most propitious environmental condition 
for humanity incubating, but also maintaining the exact vast complex 
of dose-tolerance-of-physical-error limits within which humans 
could survive. 

Humans cannot impound enough energy by sunbathing to keep 
them alive and operative. Planet Earth s safe importing of Sun 
radiation must first be impoundingly accomplished by vegetation 
in energy quantities adequate to supporting not only the vegetation 
and the humans but all the other myriads of species of life altogether 
constituting the regenerative ecologic system. To do this, the angular 
fan-out concentration of energy intensity must be accomplished by 
attaining adequate distance from the Sun, and thereby to arrive at 
protoplasmically tolerable increments of energy exactly sustained 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 5 



for conversion by botanical photosynthesis into hydrocarbon 
molecules, which thereafter can be assimilated metabolically by all 
other living biological organisms. This means that the Suns surface 
energy radiation must be transformingly programmed to angularly 
deconcentrate during its eight-minute, 92-milIion-mile passage from 
Sun to Earth to arrive in nonlethal increments and at nonlethal 
temperatures. 

The farther away a cosmic radiation source is, the less concentrated 
the radiation. Only about one-billionth of the radiation given off 
omnidirectionally by the Sun is so aimed as to impinge directly upon 
the surface of planet Earth. 

With all the space of Universe to work with, the great designing 
wisdom of Universe seems to have found it to be essential that the 
energy organized as the predominantly water-structured substance 
that is all biological life be maintained at a distance apparently never 
greater than 95 million miles and never less than 91 million miles 
away from the atomic-encrgy-generating plant of the Suns initial 
magnitude of radiation concentration. 

Sad to say, those of the present Earthian power-structure's scientists 
who assert that they can safely bury atomic radiation wastes within 
the ever-transforming structure of planet Earth are rationalizing 
information critical to human continuance aboard planet Earth. 
They and their only-selfishly-motivated masters are gambling the 
future of all humanity to win only the continuing increase of their 
personal economic power control for the few remaining years of only 
their own lives. 

While the totality of atomic wastes now Earth-buried or ocean- 
sunk is as yet of a feasibly rocketable total bulk and weight for a 
plurality of blastings-off, wc may still send such atomic wastes back 
into the Sun where they can once more become safely exportable. 

Humans who think they are better designers than God are the 
most to be pitied of Hars-the liars who are believingly convinced by 
their own only-self-conveniencing fabrications. 

On rereading what I have just said about humans falsifying critical 
information, I am retrospectively shocked at my making those two 
negative citations. 



6 GUINEA PIG B 



Firstly, my positive information, which if comprehended can help 
toward realization of physical success for humanity, when followed 
by my negativism, reduces the credibility of my wisdom and thereby 
reduces the value of my positive information. 

Secondly, we observe from experience that nature has its own 
checks and balances, accelerators and brakes, temporary side-tracking, 
overload circuit breakers, self-starters, transformers, birth and death 
rates, and complex overall evolutionary gestation rates. 

Natures biggest, most important problems take the longest to solve 
satisfactorily because they can be solved only by lessons humanly 
learned through trial-and-error mistake-making; and, most important, 
by those who make the mistakes and their self-recognition and public 
acknowledgment of their errors and their only-thereby-Iearned-from 
positive clues to effective solutions of evolutionary problems in the 
present instance, the problem of how best to abruptly terminate further 
atomic energy development for human use as fissionally or fusionally 
generated aboard planet Earth. The problem is one of immediate and 
direct concern to each individual of our four billion humans, as well 
as to all the potential many yet to be born and to God. Its satisfactory 
solution can be arrived at only through major design-science initiative- 
takings that produce far superior technologies to render spontaneously 
obsolete the previous undesirable technology. 

Vividly, I recall an occasion when I was about ten and my father 
heard me call my own brother a fool. My father said, "Bucky, 1 do 
not take everything I read as being reliable, not even when 1 read it in 
the Bible. But I find by experience that statements in the Bible are far 
more often reliable than arc declarations printed elsewhere. There is 
a statement in the Bible that you should remember: he who calls his 
brother a fool shall be in danger of hell's fire. 

In these critical times let us no longer make the mistake of 
identifying as fools those with whom we disagree. 

The late twentieth century's confused, fearful human chitchat 
about an Earthian energy crisis discloses the abysmal state of 
ignorance within which we Earthtans now struggle. All this results 
in realization of the almost absolute futility of the disintegrated ways 
in which humanity's present leaders cope with this one-and-only- 
available Spaceship Earth and its one-and-only-available Universe 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 7 



and with the problems of human survival, let alone attainment of 
physical success for all humanity within the critical time limit. 

For all those who wished to observe them - 1 being one such person 

- all the foregoing concepts were already apparent in 1927, though in far 
less obvious degree. The sum of all these facts made it clear to me in 
1927 that no matter how much I could, did, or might as yet accomplish, 
as a human problem-solver employing only an artifact-designed 
industrial-production revolution on Spaceship Earth - seeking by 
techno-economic obsolescence, rather than by political reform, to 
make physically obsolete all ignorantly incapacitating reflexing of 
humanity - I could not possibly make more of a mess-of-it-all than 
that being made by the behind-the-scenes absolutely selfish world 
power-structures' puppcting of the 150 "sovereign** prime ministers, 
their national legislatures, and their in-turn-puppeted generals and 
admirals, and the latter's omni-intercompetitive commanding of our 
one-and-only spaceship, with each five-star "admiral general" looking 
out only for his own sovereignly-escutcheoncd stateroom and all the 
starboard-side admirals trying to find a way of sinking all the port- 
side admirals without the winning admirals getting their own feet 
wet, let alone being drowned. 

i saw that there was nothing to stop me from studying - hopefully 
to discover, comprehend, and eventually employ design-wise - the 
integrated total family of generalized principles by which nature 
operates this magnificent human-passengered, spherical spaceship 
as entirely enclosed within an external set of physically unique, 
spherically concentric environmental zones altogether producing the 
critically complex balance of intcrtransformative energy conditions 
essential to maintaining an omniregenerative planetary ecology 

- all accomplished in local Universe support of eternally omni- 
interregenerative Universe itself by means of planet Earths syntropic, 
biochemical capability to photosynthetically convert stellar radiation 
(primarily that of the Sun) into hydrocarbon-structured vegetation 
that in turn is converted as "food" into all manner of biological 
proliferatings, ultimately after aeons of enormous heat and pressure 
treatment produced by deep-Earth burial * to be converted into 
fossil fuels. 



8 GUINEA PIG 8 



This Earthian energy impounding and conserving altogether 
constitutes a cosmic accumulation of energy ultimately adequate 
- billions of years hence - to produce "critical mass" for self-starting 
its own "all-out" atomic energy generators and thus itself becoming a 
radiation-exporting star. 

I saw that this planet Earth 's organic-biochemical interstructuring is 
(i) tensionally produced only by triple-bonded, no-degrees-of-freedom, 
crystalline interarrayings of atomic events, (2) compressionally 
structured only by double-bonded, flexibly jointed, pressure- 
distributing and omni-stress-equalizing, hydraulic interarrangcments 
of atomic events, and (3) shock-absorbingly structured, singlebondedly 
and pneumatically, by gaseous interarrangement of atomic events. 

I saw that approximately one-half of all the mobile biological 
structuring consists of water, which freezes and boils within very 
close thermal-environment limits, the physical accommodation of 
which limiting requirements is uniquely maintained in Universe 
only within the biosphere of Spaceship Earth that is, so far as human 
information goes. 

And I repeat for emphasis that I saw in 1927 that there was nothing 
to stop me from trying to think about how and why humans are here 
as passengers aboard this spherical spaceship wc call Earth. Return 
to this initial question has always produced for me the most relevant 
and incisive of insights. Therefore I hope all humanity will begin to 
ask itself this question in increasingly attentive earnestness. I also 
saw that there was nothing to stop me from thinking about the 
total physical resources we have now discovered aboard our ship and 
about how to use the total cumulative know-how to make this ship 
work for everybody paying absolutely no attention to the survival 
problems of any separate nations or any other individual groupings of 
humans, and assuming only one goal: the omni-physically successful, 
spontaneous self-integration of all humanity into what 1 called in 1927 
"a one-town world." 

I knew at the 1927 outset that this was to be a very long-distance 
kind of search, research, and development experiment, probably to 
take at least one-half a century to bring to fruition, with no capital 
backing. At any rate, I want you to understand now why I had 
no competition undertaking to solve all human physio-economic 



R, 8UCKM1NSTER FULLER 9 



problems only by an environment-improving, artifact inventing-and- 
developing revolution, which inadvertently produced its recognition 
by the media, which incidental news publishing is the only reason 
you know about me - especially since I have been only inadvertently 
producing news-provoking artifacts for fifty-six years. All that news 
has failed to induce any sincerely sustained realistic competition 
with my efforts and on my economic premise of non-money-making 
but hopefully sense-making - and only-by-faith-in-God-sustained 
objectives. 

Because it was a very large undertaking, I didn't know that I would 
be here to see it through for all those 56 years. I was born in 1895. The 
life insurance companies' actuarial life-expectancy for me was 42 
years. I was already 32 when I started the project. 1 have been amazed 
that things have worked out to the extent that they have, that I am 
as yet vigorously active, and that 1 have been able to find so many 
relevant things that a little individual can do that a great nation and 
capital enterprise can't do. 

Yet I am quite confident there is nothing that I have undertaken 
to do that others couldn't do equally well or better under the same 
economic circumstances. I was supported only by my faith in God and 
my vigorously pursued working assumption that it is God s intent to 
make humans an economic success so that they can and may in due 
course fulfill an essential - and only mind-renderabie - functioning 
in Universe. 

Assuming this to be God's intent, I saw that if I committed 
myself only to initiating, inventing, and full-scale prototyping of life- 
protecting and -supporting artifacts that afforded ever more inclusive, 
efficient, and in every way more humanly pleasing performances while 
employing ever less pounds of materials, ergs of energy, and seconds of 
time per each accomplished function, a young public's enthusiasm for 
acquisition of those artifacts and youth's increasing satisfaction with 
the services thereby produced might induce their further development 
and multiplication by other significance-comprehending and initiative- 
taking young humans. 

I saw that this ever-multiplying activity could lead ultimately to full- 
scale, worid-around, only-for-industrial-mass-production-prototyped 
artifacts. I saw that this mass-production-and-distribution of Hvingry 



10 GUINEA PIG B 



service could provide an adequate inventory of public-attention- 
winning-and-supporting artifacts, efficient and comprehensive 
enough to swiftly provide the physical success for all humanity. 

This would terminate humanity's need to "earn a living ," i.e., doing 
what others wanted done only for others* ultimately selfish reasons. 
This attending only to what needs to be done for all humanity in turn 
would allow humanity the time to effectively attend to the Universe- 
functioning task for the spontaneous performance of which God - the 
eternal, comprehensive, intellectual integrity usually referred to as 
"nature" or as "evolution" - had included humans in the grand design 
of eternally regenerative Universe. 

It was clear to me that if my scientifically reasoned working 
assumptions were correct and if 1 did my part in successfully 
initiating, and following-through on realizing, the previously recited 
potential chain-reactive events, I would be supported by God in 
realistic, natural, but almost always utterly surprising-to-me ways. 
I therefore committed myself to such initiations, realizations, and 
followings-through. 

Because I knew at the 1927 outset of the commitment that no 
one else thought my commitment to be practical or profitable, I also 
knew that no one would keep any record of its cvolvement should 
it be so fortunate as to evolve. Since I intended to do everything in 
a comprehensively scientific manner in committing myself to this 
very large-scale experiment (which, as already stated, sought to 
discover what a little, unknown, moneyless, creditless individual 
with dependents could do effectively on behalf of all humanity that 
- inherently could never be done by any nations or capital enterprise), I 
saw clearly that I must keep my own comprehensive records - records 
being a prime requisite of scientific exploration. This I have done. It 
has been expensive and difficult both to accomplish and to maintain. It 
is comprehensive and detailed. I speak of the record as the "archives." 
They consist of: 

A.The"Chronofile," which in 1981 consisted of 750 12" x 10" x$ r volumes. 
These volumes contain all my correspondence, as well as sketches and 
doodles made during meetings with others, and also back-of-envelopc 
and newspaper-edged notes, all maintained chronologically - in exact 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER U 



order of inbound and outbound happenings - all the way from my 
earliest childhood to the present keeping of such records as induce 
discovery of what to avoid in future initiatives 

B. All the drawings and blueprints I have been able to save of all 
the design and full-scale artifact-inventing, -developing and -testing 
realizations 

C. All the economically retainable models 

D. All the moving picture and television footage covering my work 

E. All the wire and tape recorded records of my public addresses 

F. All the affordable news-bureau and clipping-service records of 
articles or books written by others about me or my work 

G. All the posters announcing my lecturing appearances as designed 
and produced by others 

H. A large conglomeration of items (for instance, over 100 T-shirts 
with pictures of my work or quotations of my public utterances) 
produced and distributed by students at many of the 550 universities 
and colleges that have invited me to speak; collection of awards, 
mementos, etc. 

L All the multi-stage copies of the manuscript and typescript versions 
of my twenty-three formally published books and many published 
magazine articles 

J. Over 10,000 4* x 5" photo negatives and over 30,000 photographs, all 
code-listed, covering my life and work; also 20,000 35-mm projection 
slides 

K. My own extensive library of relevant books and published articles 
L. All my financial records, including annual income tax returns 



12 GUINEA PIG 6 



M. All the indexes to the archival material 

N. All the drafting tools, typewriters, computers, furniture, and file 
cabinets for an office staff of seven 

O. A large collection of framed photos, paintings, diplomas, cartoons, etc 

P. Biographical data, published periodically (approximately every three 
years), summarizing all developments of my original commitments 

Q^The "Inventory of World Resources, Human Trends and Needs" 

R. The World Game records 

The archives' collected public record now consists of over 100,000 
newspaper and magazine articles, books, and radio and television 
broadcasts about me or my work, unsolicitedly conceived and produced 
by other human beings all around the world since 1917. 

The prime public record of my morc-than-half-century's 
fulfillment of my commitment has been realized in the working 
artifacts themselves - the 300,000 world-around geodesic domes, the 
five million Dymaxion World Maps, the many thousands of copies of 
each of my twenty-three published books - and, most important of all, 
within the minds and memories of the 30,000 students I have taught 
how to think about how to design socially needed, more efficiently 
produced artifacts. 

I do not now employ, and never have employed, any professional 
public relations agents or agencies, lecture or publishing bureaus, 
salespeople, sales agencies, or promotional workers. As indicated 
earlier, I am convinced that nature has her own conceptioning, 
gestation, birth, development, maturization, and death rates, the 
magnitudes of which vary greatly in respect to the biochemistry and 
technological arts involved. The most important evolutionary events 
take the longest. 

Since maintenance of the updating and safety of the archives is as 
yet my responsibility, they are not open to the public, though scholars 
from time to time are allowed to view them and be shown items of 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 13 



special interest to them. Because I avoid employing any professional 
agencies, the magnitude of my development is not kept track of and 
publicly reported by any of the professional agency associations. For 
instance, I am not included in the annual statements appearing in the 
news regarding the public speakers most in demand. Therefore every 
three years or so my office updates my "basic biography " as it is called, 
to be distributed to those who ask for information. 

Because we are now entering upon the 1927-initiated half-century 
period of realization, it is now appropriate to make public exposure 
of the record in order to encourage youth to undertake its own 
mind-evolved initiatives. 

I am therefore publishing herewith: 

1. A compilation of my U.S. patents, with photographs of each of the 
realized artifacts covered by each patent. 

2. The compendium of honorary doctorate citations. Since I did not 
graduate from any college or university and since I have not amassed 
riches and made generous financial gifts to the schools, I am confident 
that none of the doctorates were conferred upon me as a financial 
benefactor but only in recognition of my on-campus academic 
activities, as a visiting lecturer, a research project initiator and director, 
or as an appointed professor. Here my work could be intimately judged 
for its educational value, wherefore the awarding of honorary doctorate 
degrees to me constitutes an objective assessment of the magnitude 
and validity of my working knowledge and of its usefulness to the 
educational system and society. Like the public record established 
by my patents, these doctorates can serve as critical appraisal of the 
historical relevance, practicality, and relative effectiveness of my half- 
centurys experimental commitment to discover what, if anything, 
an individual human eschewing politics and money-making can do 
effectively on behalf of all humanity. 

I hope that the record so documented (and your hoped-fcr-by-me 
close examination of it) will serve as an encouragement to you as 
individuals to undertake tasks that you can see need to be attended 
to, which are not to the best of your knowledge being attended to by 



}4 GUINEA PIG B 



others, and for which there are no capital backers. You are going to 
have to test a cosmic intellectual integrity as being inherently manifest 
in the eternally generalized scientific and only mathematically 
expressible laws governing the complex design of Universe and of all 
the myriads of objective special-case realizations. 

I am presenting all these thoughts and records because I think 
we are coming to a very extraordinary moment in the history of 
humanity, when only such a spontaneous, competent, and ultimately 
cooperative design- science initiative-taking, on the part of a large 
majority of human individuals, can ensure humanity's safe crossing 
of the cosmically critical threshold into its prime and possibly eternal 
functioning in the macro-micro cosmic scheme. 

All humans have always been born naked, completely helpless 
for months, beautifully equipped but with no experience, therefore 
absolutely ignorant. This is a very important design fact. I do not look 
at such a human start as constituting a careless or chance oversight in 
the cosmic conceptioning of the intellectual integrity governing the 
Universe. The initial ignorance of humans was by deliberate cosmic 
(divine) design. 

We know that before humans are born forth, naked from their 
mothers' wombs, their protoplasmic cells are chromosomally (DNA- 
RNA) programmed to produce each human in incredibly successful 
regenerative detail. 

If we study both the overall integrated system and the detail-design 
features of our own physical organism - for instance, our optical 
system and its intimacy with our brains nervous system - we realize 
what miraculously complex yet eminently successful anticipatory- 
design-science phenomena are the humans and the cosmic totality of 
our complex supportive environment. 

If I accidentally scratch-cut myself when I am 3, nature goes 
instantly to work and repairs the cut. I don't know, even now at 88, how 
to repair my own cell-structured tissue, and I certainly didn't know 
how at 3 years of age. We understand very little. Obviously, however, 
we arc magnificently successful products of design in a Universe the 
complexity and intricacy of whose design integrity utterly transcends 
human comprehension, let alone popularly acceptable descriptions of 
"divine design." 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 15 




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R. BUCKM1NSTER FULLER 



Therefore the fact that we are designed to be born naked, helpless, 
and ignorant is, I feel, a very important matter. We must pay attention 
to that. We are also designed to be very hungry and to be continually 
rehungered and rethirsted and multiplyingly curious. Therefore we are 
quite clearly designed to be inexorably driven to learn only by trial and 
error how to get on in life. As a consequence of the design, we have 
had to make an incredible number of mistakes, that being the only 
way we can find out "what's what" and a little bit about "why," and an 
even more meager bit regarding "how" we can take advantage of what 
we have learned from our mistakes. 

Suppose a hypothetical 3-billion-B,C. "you," being enormously 
hungry, ate some invitingly succulent red berries and was poisoned. 
The tribe concluded, "Berries are poisonous. People can't eat berries." 
And for the next thousand years, that tribe did not do so. Then along 
came somebody who showed them they could safely eat blueberries. 

At any rate it took a long, long time for humanity to get to the 
point where it was inventing words with which to integrate and 
thereby share the lessons individually learned from error-inducing 
experiences. Humans could help one another only by confessing what 
each had found out only by trial and error. Most often "know-it-alP 
ego blocked the process. 

After inventing spoken words, humanity took a long time more to 
invent writing, with which both the remote-from-local-community 
and the dead gave the remote-from-one-another beings information 
about their remote-in-time-and-space error-discovering and truth- 
uncovering experience. Thus does evolution continually compound 
the wisdom accruing to error-making and- discovering experiences, 
the self-admission of which alone can uncover that which is true. 

Informed by the senses, the brains of all creatures unthinkingly 
reflex in pursuing only the sensorially obvious and attractive 
wilderness trails, waterways, and mountain passes along which may 
exist failen-leaves-hidden pit-falls. 

This fact made possible the effectiveness of the pitfall trap - falling 
into the pit at 90 degrees to the 180 degrees line of sight spontaneously 
followed in pursuit of the obvious. This straightaway reflexing is 
frequently employed by nature to give humans an opportunity to 
learn that which humanity needs to learn if humanity is ever to 



22 GUINEA PIG B 



attain the capability to perform its cosmically assigned, spontaneous, 
intellectually responsible functioning. If ego is surmounted, mind may 
discover and comprehend the significance of the negative event and 
may thereby discover the principles leading not only to escape from 
the entrapment but discovery of what is truly worthwhile pursuing, 
but only as a consequence of the mind's exclusive capability to discover 
and employ not just one principle but the syncrgetically interoperative 
significance of all the human mind's thus-far-discovered principles. 

Up to a very short time ago - that is to say, up to the twentieth 
century - humans were only innately wise but comprehensively 
information-ignorant. We have had to discover many errors to become 
reasonably intelligent. 

For instance, when I was young those humans who were most 
remote from others had to travel a minimum of six months to reach 
one another; approximately none of them ever did so. That is why 
Kipling's "East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall 
meet" seemed so obviously true to the vast millions who read or heard 
his words. Ihat has all changed. Today, any one of us having enough 
credit to acquire a jet air-transport ticket can - using only scheduled 
flights - physically reach anybody else around the world within twenty- 
four hours, or can reach each other by telephone within minutes. 

The furthestmost point away from any place on our approximately 
25-thousand-mile-circumferenced Earth sphere is always halfway 
around the world, which is 12,500 great-circle miles away in any 
direction from the point at which we start. Flying the shortest 
distance from the exact North Pole to the South Pole, any direction 
you first head in will be "due south." If you keep on heading exactly 
south you will find yourself following a onc-great-circle meridian of 
longitude until you get to the South Pole. Furthermore, to reach your 
halfway-around-the-Earth, furthest-away-from-you point which is 
always 12,500 miles away - flying in a Concorde supersonic transport, 
cruising efficiently at Mach 2 (approximately 1,400 m.p.h.), and 
including stopover refueling times, you will reach that furthestmost 
halfway-around-thc-world-from-wherc-you-started point in 
half a day. 



R. BUCKMiNSTER FULLER 23 



Humanity, which yesterday was remotely deployed by evolution, is 
now being deliberately integrated to make us all very intimate with 
one another and probably ultimately to crossbreed us back into one 
physically similar human family. 

When I was young we were extremely ignorant about other people. 
I was told that people even in the next town were very dangerous: they 

"drink whiskey and have knives..., you had better not go over there." 
I was 7 years old when the first automobile came into Boston. When 
the owner of one of those excitingly new 1902 automobiles drove me 
over into one of those "dangerous" next towns, I could see no one who 
appeared to be more "dangerously threatening" than any of my very 
nonthreatening hometown neighbors. 

I was 8 when the Wright brothers first flew. 1 was 12 when we had 
the first public wireless telegraphy. 1 was 19 when we had our first 

"world" war. 

I was born in an almost exclusively walking-from-here-to-there 
world, a Victorian world in which we knew nothing about strangers. 
Hie assumption was that all strangers were inherently unreliable 
people. When I was young, 95 percent of all humans were illiterate. 
Today over 60 percent of the times as many humans present on Earth 
are literate. All this has happened unpredictedly in only one lifetime. 
The majority of older humans of today are as yet apprehensive of 
strangers and pretend nonrecognition while the majority of those 30 
years and younger tend to welcome strangers, often with open arms. 

Something very big has been going on in my particular generation's 
lifetime where all the fundamental conditions of humanity arc 
changing at an ever-accelerating acceleration rate. 

When I was young, not only were 95 percent of human beings 
illiterate but their speech patterns were also atrociously difficult to 
understand. I had two jobs before World War I. The men I worked 
with were very skilled but their awkwardly articulated, ill-furnished 
vocabularies were limited to about 100 words 50 percent of them 
blasphemous or obscene. Primarily they let you know how they felt 
about matters by the way in which they spit - delightedly, amusedly, 
approvingly, or disgustedly. They were wonderfully lovable and brave 
human beings but that swearing and spitting was the most articulate 
and effective expressive language they had. Their pronunciations varied 



24 GUINEA PIG B 



not only from town to town and from one part of a town to another 
but also from house to house and from individual to individual. 

Something extraordinary has happened. Only within our last-of- 
thc-twentieth -century time, approximately everybody has acquired a 
beautiful vocabulary. This did not come from the schooling system but 
from the radio and TV, where the people who secured the performing 
jobs did so by virtue of their common pronunciation, the clarity of 
their speech, and the magnitude of their vocabularies. They no longer 
spoke with the myriad of esoteric pronunciations of yesterday. People 
were introduced to a single kind of language* This brought about 
primary common-speech patterns. The necessity for pilots of airplanes 
operating daily around the world from countries all around the world to 
have a common language has swiftly evolved into a common language. 
Olympic Games, athletics in general, and frequently televised world 
affairs have all been accelerating the coming of a to-be evolved world 
language. That the language most commonly used in 1983 is English is 
unfortunate and untrue. What we call English was not the language of 
long-ago-vanished Angles and Jutes. It is the most crossbred of all the 
world-around languages of all the world-around people who on their 
ever westwardly and mildly northwestwardly colonizing way have 
historically invaded or populated England. "English" now includes 
words from all the world s languages and represents an agglomeration 
of the most frequently used and most easily pronounceable words. 

Since throughout at least three million years people did not 
understand languages well, they were relatively ignorant. Their group 
survival required leaders. Thus through the comprehensively illiterate 
ages we came historically to require powerful leaders - sometimes 
as physical warriors, sometimes as spiritual warriors, sometimes as 
unique individual personalities. Statesmen steered great religious 
organizations or great government organizations that led the affairs 
of illiterate, uninformed humanity. 

We have come now to a completely new moment in the history of 
humans at which approximately everybody is "in" on both speech and 
information. 

Humanity has been coming out of a group- womb of permitted 
ignorance made possible only by the existence of an enormous 
cushion of natural physical resources with which to learn only by trial 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 25 



and error, thus to become somewhat educated about how and why 
humans happen to be here on this planer. Despite a doubling of world 
population during my lifetime, humanity has at the same time gone 
from 95 percent illiterate to 60 percent literate. 

Until I was 28 we Earthians knew only about our own Milky Way 
galaxy. In 1923 Hubble discovered another galaxy. Since that time we 
have discovered two billion more of them. That explosively accelerated 
rate of expansion of our astronomical-information-acquisitioning 
typifies the rate of popular increase of both scientifically general and 
technically special information during my lifetime. 

We are living in a new evolutionary moment in which the human 
is being individually educated to do the free-standing humans own 
thinking, and each is thereby separately becoming extraordinarily well 
informed. We have reached a threshold moment where the individual 
human beings are in what I consider to be a "final examination" as 
to whether they, individually, as a cosmic invention, are to graduate 
successfully into their mature cosmic functioning or, failing, are to be 
classified as "imperfects" and "discontinued items" on this planet and 
anywhere else in Universe. 

We are at a human examination point at which it is critically 
necessary for each of us individually to have some self-discovered, 
logically reasonable, experience-engendered idea of how and why we 
are here on this little planet in this star system and galaxy, amongst 
the billions of approximately equally star-populated galaxies of 
Universe. I assume it is because human minds were designed with 
the capability to discover from time to time the only-mathcmatically- 
stateable principles governing the eternal interrelationships existing 
between various extraordinary phenomena - a capability possessed by 
no known phenomenon other than humans. 

How and why were we given our beautiful minds with their 
exclusive access to the scientific principles governing the operational 
design of eternally regenerative Universe? 

As an instance of the human mind's capability, we have the 
integration of the unplanned, only cvolutionarily combined works 
of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo informedly inspiring Isaac 
Newton into assuming hypothetically that the interattractiveness of 
any two celestial bodies varies inversely as of the second power of 



26 GUINEA PIG B 



the arithmetical distances intervening if you double the arithmetical 
distance intervening, you will reduce the interattractiveness to one- 
fourth what it had been. Astronomers applied his hypothesis to 
their celestial observations and discovered that this mathematical 
formulation explained the ever-mobile interpositioning behaviors of 
all known and measuringly-observed celestial bodies. Thus, Newton's 
hypothesis became adopted as a "scientifically generated law." 

In dramatic contradistinction to the brain's functioning within 
only directly nerve-sensing limits, the human mind has the capability, 
once in a great while, to discover invisible, soundless, unsmcllablc, 
untasteable, untouchable interrelationships eternally existing between 
separate, special-case cosmic entities, which eternal interrelationships 
are not manifest by any of the interested entities when considered 
only separately and which interrelationships can be expressed only 
mathematically and constitute eternal cosmic laws - such as Newton's 
discovery that the interattractiveness existing invisibly between any 
two celestial bodies always varies inversely as the second power of 
the arithmetically expressed distances intervenes those bodies. Such 
Universal laws can be expressed only mathematically. Mathematics, 
we note, is purely intellectual. Altogether these laws manifest the 
eternal intellectual integrity of Universe that I speak of as "God." 

Human intellect (mind) has gradually discovered a number of these 
extraordinary, generalized, non-sensorially-apprehensiblc eternal 
principles. We human beings have been given access to at least some 
of the design laws of the Universe. 

We don't know of any other phenomenon that has such a faculty 
and such an access permit, wherefore we may assume that we humans 
must be cosmically present for some very, very important reason. 

As far as I know, we humans haven't thought or talked very much 
about how and why we are here as either a desirable or a necessary 
function of Universe. We have talked a great deal about the great 
mystery of being here. But the majority of our public talking centers 
on the egotistical assumption that human politics and the wealthy 
are running the Universe, that the macrocosmic spectaculars are an 
accessory amusement of our all-important selfish preoccupations, 
and that Universes microcosmic invisibles are exclusively for 
corporate stockholders' money-making exploitation - though 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 27 



always individually discovered or invented but only industrially 
developed, funded exclusively by the research departments of great 
corporations as initially funded by humanity's taxes-paid military 
defense expenditures after production rights arc transferred to 
prime corporations. 

Wc humans are overwhelmed because we are so tiny and the Earth 
is so big and the celestial systems so vast. It is very hard for us to think 
effectively and realistically about what we feel about the significance 
of all vvc have learned about Universe. 

At any rate, we are now at a point where wc have to begin to think 
realistically about how and why we are here with this extraordinary 
capability of the mind. Our remaining here on Earth isn't a matter 
of the cosmic validity of any Earthian economic systems, political 
systems, religious systems, or other mystical-organization systems. 
Our "final examination" is entirely a matter of each of all the individual 
human beings, all of whom have been given this extraordinary, truly 
divine capability of the mind, individually qualifying in their own 
right to continue in Universe as an extraordinary thinking faculty. 
If all of humanity as a cosmic invention is to successfully pass this 
final examination, it would seem to be logically probable that a large 
majority of all Earthian individuals make and do the passing for 
themselves and for the remaining numbers. 

Are we individually going to be able to break out from our 
institutionally misconditioned rcflexing? Are we going to be able to 
question intelligently all the things that we have been taught only to 
believe and not to expose to the experiential-evidence tests? Are we 
going to really dare to make our own behavioral strategy decisions as 
informed only by our own separate experimentally or experientially 
derived evidence? The integrity of individually thinking human 
beings - as mind vs. brain- reflexing automatons is being tested. 

My own working assumption of why we are here is that wc are 
here as local-Universe information-gatherers and that we are given 
access to the divine design principles so that wc can therefrom 
objectively invent instruments and tools - e.g., the microscope and 
the telescope - with which to extend all sensorial inquiring regarding 
the rest of the to-the-naked-cye-invisible, micro-macro Universe, 
because human beings, tiny though we are, are here for all the local- 



28 GUINEA PIG 6 



Universe information-harvesting and cosmic-principle-discovering, 
objective tool-inventing, and local-cnvironment-controlling as local 
Universe problem-solvers in support of the integrity of eternally 
regenerative Universe. 

To fulfill our ultimate cosmic functioning we needed the telescope 
and microscope, having only within the present century discovered 
that almost all the Universe is invisible. 1 was two years old when 
the electron was discovered. That began a new era. When I entered 
Harvard my physics text had a yellow-paper appendix that had just 
been glued into the back of the white-leaved physics book. The added 
section was called "Electricity." The vast ranges of the invisible reality 
of Universe constituted a very new world - for humanity, a very 
different kind of world. 

When I was born, "reality" was everything you could see, smell, 
touch, and hear. That s all there was to it. But suddenly we extended 
our everyday doings and thinkings, not linearly but omnidirectionally 
into the vast outward, macro-ranges and inwardly penetrating 
to discover the infra-micro-tune-in-able ranges of the invisible 
within-ncss world. 

We began to discover all kinds of new chemical, biological, and 
electromagnetic behaviors of the invisible realm so that today 99.999 
percent of the search and research for everything that is going to 
affect all our lives tomorrow is being conducted in the realm of reality 
nondirectly contactablc by the human senses. It takes a really educated 
human to be able to cope with the vast and exquisite ranges of reality. 

So here wc arc - as human beings - majorly educated and 
individually endowed with developable capabilities of getting on 
successfully within the invisible ultra-macro and infra-micro world. 

Here we have found that each chemical element has its own 
electromagnetic spectrum wavelengths and frequencies that 
arc absolutely unique to that particular element-isotope. These 
wavelengths and frequencies are nondirectly tune-in-able by 
the human senses but are all spectroscopically ditferentiable and 
photographically convertible into human readability. 

Repeating to emphasize its significance, we note that exploring 
with the spectroscope, photo-telescope, and radio telescope, humans 
only recently have traveled informational!}' to discover about two 



R. BUCKM1NSTER FULLER 29 



billion galaxies with an average of 100 billion stars each, all existing 
within astronomy's present 11.5 billion-light-years* radial reach in 
all directions of the vastness around us. 

Taking all the light from all those galaxies we have been able to 
discover spectroscopically - and have inventoried here on board planet 
Earth - the relative intcrabundance of each of the unique categories 
of all the chemical elements present within that 11. 5 billion-light-years 
realm around us. That little Earthian humans can accomplish that 
scale of scientific inventorying makes it possible to realize what the 
human mind can really do. One can begin to comprehend what God 
is planning to do with the humans* cosmic functioning. 

In our immediate need to discover more about ourselves wc also 
note that what is common to all human beings in all history is their 
ceaseless confrontation by problems, problems, problems. We humans 
are manifestly here for problem-solving and, if we are any good at 
problem-solving, we don't come to Utopia, we come to more difficult 
problems to solve: That apparently is what we re here for, so I therefore 
conclude that wc humans are here for local information-gathering 
and local problem-solving with our minds having access to the design 
principles of the Universe and - I repeat - thereby finally discover 
that we are most probably here for local information-gathering and 
local-Universe problem-solving in support of the integrity of eternally 
regenerative Universe. 

If our very logically and experientially supported working 
assumption is right, that is a very extraordinarily important kind of 
function for which we humans were designed ultimately to fulfill. It is 
clearly within the premises of the divine. 

We note also that when nature has a very important function to 
perform, such as regenerating Earthian birds to play their part in the 
overall ecological regenerating, nature doesn't put all her birds* eggs in 
one basket. Instead she provides myriads of fail-safe alternate means 
of satisfying each function. 

Nature must have illions of alternate solutions in this cosmic 
locality to serve effectively the local information-gathering and 
local problem-solving in local support of the integrity of an eternally 
regenerative Universe - should we humans fail to graduate from our 
potential lessons-learning games of ever more exquisite micro-invisible 



GUINEA PIG B 



discrimination and ever greater political, economic, educational, and 
religious mistake-making. 

When in 1927 1 started the experiment to discover what a little 
individual might be able to do effectively on behalf of all humanity, I 
said to myself "You are going to have to do all your own thinking/* I 
had been brought up in an era in which all the older people said to all 
the young people. "Never mind what you think. Listen to what we 
are trying to teach you to think!" However, as experience multiplied, 
I learned time and again that the way things often turned out 
evidenced that the way I had been thinking was often a more accurate, 
informative, and significant way of comprehending the significance 
of events than was the academic and conventional way 1 was being 
taught, so 1 said, "If I am going to discard all my taught-to-believe 
reflexings, I must do all my own thinking. I must go entirely on my 
own direct experiential evidence " 

1 said, "It has been an impressive part of my experience that most 
human beings have a powerful feeling that there is some greater and 
more exaltedly benign authority operating in the Universe than that of 
human beings - a phenomenon they call *God/ There arc many ways 
of thinking about 4 God* and I saw that most children are brought 
up to 'believe' this and that concerning the subject. By the word 
believe I mean 'accepting explanations of physical and metaphysical 
phenomena without any supportive physical evidence, i.e., without 
reference to any inadvertently experienced information-harvesting or 
deliberatc-experimental-evidence expansion of our knowledge.™ 

I then said to myself, 'Tf you are going to give up all the beliefs and 
are going to have to go only on your own experiential evidence, you 
are going to have to ask yourself if you have any experience that would 
cause you to have to say to yourself there is quite clearly a greater 
intellect operating in the Universe than that of human beings. 

Luckily I had had a good scientific training, and the discovery of 
those great, eternal, scientific principles that could only be expressed 
mathematically- mathematics is purely intellectual made me conclude 
that I was overwhelmed with the manifests of a greater intellect 
operating in Universe than that of humans, which acknowledgment 
became greatly fortified by the following experiential observations. 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 31 



Scientific perusal of the personal diaries, notes, and letters written 
by three of history's most significant scientific discoverers - just 
before, at the time of, and immediately after the moment of their great 
discoveries - finds that the written records of all of them, unaware of 
the others* experiences, make it eminently clear that two successive 
intuitions always played the principal role in their successful 
accomplishing of their discoveries: the first intuition telling them that 
a "fish was nibbling at their baited hook" and the second intuition 
telling them how to "jerk" their fishing line to "hook" and successfully 
"land" that fish. 

The records of these same three scientists also make clear that 
to start with there must be human curiosity-arousal followed by an 
intuition-excitation of the human that causes the individual to say, 
"There is something very significant going on here regarding which 
I have yet no specific clues, let alone comprehension, because special- 
case evidences of generalized principles are always myriadiy and 
only complexedly manifest in nature " To qualify as a scientifically 
generalized principle the scientifically observed and measured 
special-case behavioral manifests of the generalized interrelationship 
principles must always be experimentally redemonstrable under a 
given set of explicitly and implicitly controlled conditions. 

Scientifically generalized principles must be repeatedly 
demonstrable as being both exceptionless and only elegantly 
expressible as simple, three-term mathematical equations, 
such as E = mc 2 . 

Constantly intercovarying, ever experimentally redemonstrable 
interrelations, which have no exceptions, are inherently "eternal." 

As a consequence of the foregoing, I then said, "Brain is always 
and only coordinating the information reported to us by our senses 
regarding both the macro outside world around us and the micro world 
within us, and recording, recalling, and only reflexively behaving in 
response to previous similar experiencing if any or if none' to newly 
imagined safe-way logic. No one has ever seen or in any way directly 
sensed anything outside the brain. The brain is our smell-, touch-, 
sound-, and imagc-ination tele-set whose reliability of objective image 
formulation has been for all childhood so faithful that we humans 
soon become convinced that we arc sensing directly outside ourselves, 



32 GUINEA PIG B 



whereas the fact is that no one has ever seen or heard or felt or smelt 
outside themselves. All sensing occurs inside the brain's 'television 
control zone.* The brain always and only deals with temporal, 
special-case, human-senses-reported experiences. Mind is always 
concerned only with multi-reconsidering a host of special-case 
experiences that have intuitively tantalizing implications of 
ultimately manifesting the operative presence of an as-yct-to-bc- 
discovcred eternal principle governing an invisible, unsmellable, 
soundless, untouchable eternal interrelationship and that complete 
interrelationships' possibly to be discovered, constantly covarying 
interrelationships' rate of change. Such principles, whether discovered 
or not, are intuitively held to always both embrace and permeate all 
special-case experiences." 

I then said to myself, U I am scientifically convinced that the thus- 
far-discovered and proven inventory of unfailingly redemonstrable 
generalized principles are a convincing manifest of an eternal intellect 
governing the myriad of nonsimultaneously and only ovcrlappingly 
occurring episodes of finite but non-unitarily conceptual, multi-where 
and multi-when eternally regenerative scenario Universe. 

"In so governing the great Universes integrity, cosmic intellect 
always and only designs with the generalized principles that are 
inherently eternal. 

"That all the eternal principles always and only appear to be 
comprehensively and concurrently operative may prove to be an 
eternal interrelationship condition, which latter hypothesis is fortified 
by the fact that none of the eternal principles has ever been found 
to contradict another. All of the eternal principles appear to be both 
constantly interaccommodative-intcrsupportive and multiplyingly 
interaugmentative. 

"When you and 1 speak of design, we spontaneously think of it as 
an intellectual conceptualizing event in which intellect first sorts out a 
plurality of elements and then interarranges them in a preferred way. 

Ergo, the "eternal intellect" - the eternal intellectual integrity - 
apparently governs the integrity of the great design of the Universe 
and all of its special-case, temporal realizations of the complex 
inreremployments of all the eternal principles." 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 33 



So I said, "I am overwhelmed by the evidence of an eternally 
existent and operative, omnicompetent, greater intellect than that of 
human beings." 

Consequently, I also said in 1927, "Here I am launching a half- 
century-magnitude program with nobody telling mc to do so, or 
suggesting how to do it.** I had absolutely no money and my darling 
wife (who has now been married to me for 66 years) was willing to 
go along with my thinking and commitments. I said to myself, a If 
I, in confining my activity to inventing, proving and improving, and 
physically producing artifacts suggested to me by physical challenges 
of the a priori environment, which inventions alter the environment 
consistently with evolution's trending, whereby I am doing that which 
is compatible with what universal evolution seems intent upon doing 
- which is to say, if I am doing what God wants done, i.e., employing 
my mind to help other humans' minds to render all humanity a 
physically self-regenerative and comprehensively intellectual integrity 
success so that humans can effectively give their priority of attention to 
the ongoing local Universe information-gathering and local problem- 
solving, primarily with design-science artifact solutions which will 
altogether result in comprehensive environmental transformation 
leading to conditions so favorable to humans* physical wellbeing and 
metaphysical equanimity as to permit humans to become permanently 
engaged with only the by-mind-conceived challenges of local 
Universe - then I do not have to worry about not being commissioned 
to do so by any Earthians and I don't have to worry how we are going 
to acquire the money, tools, and services necessary to produce the 
successively evoluting special-case physical artifacts that will most 
effectively increase humanity's technological functioning advantage 
to an omnisuccess-producing degree." 

This became an overwhelming realization, for it was to be with 
these artifacts alone that I was committing myself to comprehensively 
solve all humanity's physio-economic problems. 

I then said, *T see the hydrogen atom doesn't have to earn a living 
before behaving like a hydrogen atom. In fact, as best I can see, only 
human beings operate on the basis of 'having to earn a living.' The 
concept is one introduced into social conventions only by the temporal 
power structure's dictums of the ages. If I am doing what Gods 



34 GUINEA PIG B 



evolutionary strategy needs to have accomplished, I need spend no 
further time worrying about such matters. 

"I happen to have been born at the special moment in history 
in which for the first time there exists enough experience-won and 
experiment-verified information current in humanity's spontaneous 
conceptioning and reasoning for all humanity to carry on in a for more 
intelligent way than ever before. 

a I am not being messianically motivated in undertaking this 
experiment, nor do I think I am someone very special and different 
from other humans. The design of all humans, like all else in Universe, 
transcends human comprehension of 'how come* their mysterious, a 
priori, complexedly designed existence. 

"I am doing what I am doing only because at this critical moment I 
happen to be a human being who, by virtue of a vast number of errors 
and recognitions of such, has discovered that he would always be a 
failure as judged by so society's ages-long conditioned reflexings and 
therefore a 'disgrace* to those related to him (me) in the misassuredly, 
eternally-to-exist 'not-enough-for-all/ comprehensive, economic 
struggle of humanity to attain only special, selfish, personal, family, 
corporate, or national advantage-gaining, wherefore I had decided to 
commit suicide. I also thereby qualified as a 'throwaway* individual 
who had acquired enough knowledge regarding relevantly essential 
human evolution matters to be able to think in this particular kind 
of way. In committing suicide I seemingly would never again have 
to feel the pain and mortification of my failures and errors, but the 
only-by-expcrience-winnable inventory of knowledge that I had 
accrued would also be forever lost an inventory of information that, 
if I did not commit suicide, might prove to be of critical advantage 
to others, possibly to all others, possibly to Universe " The realization 
that such a concept could have even a one-in-an-illion chance of 
being true was a powerful reconsideration provoker and ultimate 
grand-strategy reorientcr. 

The thought then came that my impulse to commit suicide was a 
consequence of my being expressly overconcerncd with "me" and "my 
pains," and that doing so would mean that I would be making the 
supremely selfish mistake of possibly losing forever some evolutionary 
information link essential to the ultimate realization of the as-yet-to- 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 35 



be-known human function in Universe. I then realized that I could 
commit an exclusively ego suicide - a person a 1-ego "throwaway" - if 
I swore, to the best of my ability, never again to recognize and yield 
to the voice of wants only of "me" but instead commit my physical 
organism and nervous system to enduring whatever pain might lie 
ahead while possibly thereby coming to mentally comprehend how 
a "me-less individual might redress the humiliations, expenses, and 
financial losses I had selfishly and carelessly imposed on all the in- 
any-way-involved others, while keeping actively alive in toto only the 
possibly-of-cssential-use-for-others inventory of my experience, I saw 
that there was a true possibility that I could do just that if I remained 
alive and committed myself to a ncvcr-again-for-self-use employment 
of my omni-experience-gained inventory of knowledge. My thinking 
began to clear. 

I repeated enlargingly to myself, "If I go ahead with my physical 
suicide, I will selfishly escape from my personal pain but will probably 
cause great pain to others. I will thereby also throw away the inventory 
of experience which does not belong to me - that may be of critical 
evolutionary value to others and even may be said to belong not to me 
but only to others. 

"If I take oath never again to work for my own advantaging and to 
work only for all others for whom my experience-gained knowledge 
maybe of benefit, I may be justified in not throwing myself away. This 
will, of course, mean that I will not be able to escape the pain and 
mortification of being an absolute failure in playing the game of life as 
it has been taught to me." 

I then found myself saying, "I am going to commit myself 
completely to the wisdom of God and to realization only of the 
advantages for all humanity potentially existent in what life has 
already taught and may as yet teach me." 1 found myself saying, "I 
am going to commit myself completely to God and to realization 
of God's apparent intent to assign semi-divine functioning to an as- 
yet-to-qualify-for-such-functioning humanity. To qualify for such 
local-Universes evolutionary adjustings, humans themselves must 
intelligently discover and spontaneously employ their designed-in 
potentials and themselves realize the sustainable success of their 
evolutionarily scheduled physio-economic potential." 



36 GUINEA PIG B 



From that time, 56 years ago, I have had absolute faith in God. 
My task was not to preach about God, but to serve God in silence 
about God. Because such commitment to faith is inherently a "flying 
blind" commitment, I have often weakened in my confidence in myself 
to comprehend what it might be that I was being taught or told to do. 
Because I am a human and designed like all humans to learn only by 
trial and error, I have had many times to do the wrong things in order 
thereby to learn what next needed to be done. Making mistakes can be 
and usually is a very dismaying experience - so dismaying as to make 
it seemingly easier to w go along with unthinking custom." 

If I had not in 1927 committed "cgocide," I would probably have 
yielded long ago to convention and therewith suicide of my "only-for- 
all-othcrs" initiative. 

Friends would say, "You are being treacherous to your wife and 
child, not going out to earn a living for them. Come over here and 
we will give you a very good job." When, persuaded by their obvious 
generosity and concern, I did yield, everything went wrong; and every 
time I went "off the deep end" again, working only for everybody 
without salary, everything went right again. 

I was convinced from the 1927 outset of this new life that I would be 
of no benefit whatsoever to the more than two billion humans alive in 
1927 if I set about asking people to listen to my ideas and endeavoring 
to persuade them to reform their thinking and ways of behaving. 
People listen to you only when in a dilemma they recognize that they 
don't know what to do and, thinking that you might know, ask you to 
advise thern what to do. When they do ask you and you have only a 
seemingly "good idea" of what they might do, you are far less effective 
than when you can say "Jump aboard and 1*11 take you where you want 
to go" or "Jump aboard that vehicle and it will take you to where you 
want to go." Tbis involves an inanimate artifact to 4 jump aboard." 

Quite clearly I had to address not only the specific but also the 
comprehensive problem of how to find ways of giving human beings 
more energy-effective environment-controlling artifacts that did ever 
more environment-controlling with ever less pounds of materials, 
ergs of energy, and minutes of time per each realized functioning, 
until we attained the physically realized techno-energetic ability 
to do so much with so little that we could realize ample good-life 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 37 



support for everyone, hoping that under those more favorable 
physical circumstances humans would dare to be less selfish and more 
genuinely thoughtful toward one another, instead of being Iethally 
and subversively competitive for a share in the existing misassumed-to- 
be-fundamcntal inadequacy of life support, perpetually to be extant, 
on our planet. Every time I recommitted myself so to do, everything 
went well again. 

So we - my wife and family - have for 56 years realized a series 
of miracles that occur just when I need something, but not until 
the absolutely last second. If what I think I need does not become 
available I realize that my objective may be invalid or that I am 
steering a wrong course. It is only through such nonhappenings that I 
seem to be informed of how to correct both my grand strategy and its 
constituent initiations. 

I can't make plans of how to invest that which I don't have or don't 
know that I am going to have. I cannot count on anything. During all 
these last 56 years I have been unable to budget. I simply have to have 
faith and just when 1 need the right-something for the right-reasoning, 
there it is - or there they are - the workshops, helping hands, materials, 
ideas, money, tools. 

Throughout the last 56 years, I have been able to initiate and 
manage a great many physical-artifact developments, well over $20 
million direct-expenditures' worth of artifact-prototype-producing- 
and-testing physical research and development. For the last twenty 
years my income has averaged a quarter of a million dollars a year and 
my office overhead, travel, invention research and development, and 
taxes have also averaged a quarter of a million dollars. I am always 
operating in proximity to bankruptcy but never going bankrupt. 
While I owe all the humans of all history an unrepayable debt of only- 
by-experience-winnable knowledge, I don't owe anybody any money 
and have never consciously and deliberately gained at the expense 
of others. 

1 have no accrued savings of earnings. Income taxes take away 
even the most meager cushioning of funds. I have no retirement 
fund. 1 am on nobody's retirement roll. My wife's and my own social 
security combine to $9,000 per year. The tax experts tell me that 
the base of the U.S. government taxing theory relates to capitalism 



38 GUINEA PIG 6 



and its initially-amassed-dollars-investments in physical production 
facilities and the progressive depreciation of those physical properties. 
1 operate in a differently accounted world in which there is nothing 
that I can depreciate wherewith to accrue further-initiative-funding 
capability. The "know-how" capital capability with which I operate is 
always appreciating at an exponentially multiplying rate. 

There is always an inventory of important follow-through tasks 
to be accomplished and a number of new, highly relevant critical 
initiatives to be taken. 

Over the years there have also had to be a number of important 
errors to be made and important lessons to be learned. From the 
outset of my 1927 commitment and the first twenty subsequent years, 
there were individuals who were altruistically inspired to support my 
commitment. For instance, in 1928 a lawyer friend of mine gave me 
his services for nothing. Seeing the advantage for me of incorporating 
my activity, he took a few shares in my corporation to pay for his 
very prodigious services with a hope of incidental personal profit (see 
my book 4 D Timelock). Fortunately, the individual investments of 
those who sought to help me were as monetarily small as they were 
altruistically large, for their direct profits were never realized and their 
investments seemingly lost, unless they felt greatly rewarded, as many 
did, to discover that they had helped to launch an enterprise that as 
years went on seemed to be ever more promising for all humanity. 

The last such "ultimately lost/' friendly financial backing occurred 
during my design and production of the Dymaxion Dwelling 
Machine's mass-production prototype for Beech Aircraft in Wichita, 
Kansas. It was there, in 1944, 1945, and 1946, that 1 produced in full 
working scale the Dymaxion House, which weighed the three tons that 
I had estimated and published it would weigh when I designed it in 
1927-29. This Beech-Dymaxion realized weight of three tons proved the 
validity of both my structural and economic efficacious theory and its 
important technological advance over its conventional, equi-volumed 
and - equipped counterpart residence of 1927, which weighed 150 tons. 
It was the 1927 design-initiative discovery that I could apparently by 
physical design reduce fifty-fold the weight of materials necessary to 
produce a home, given certain operating standards, that gave me a 
"rocket blast-off" as an increase of confidence in my theory of solving 



R. BUCKMtNSTER FULLER 39 



humans* economic problems by producing ever more performance 
with ever less energy investments. The confirmation realized at Beech 
Aircraft seventeen years later was a second-stage rocket acceleration of 
my only-by-artifact problem-solving initiative. 

Produced on the premises of Beech Aircraft, this 1944 mass- 
production dwelling machine prototype was ordered and paid for by 
the U.S. Air Force. The prototype, along with its 100 percent spare 
parts, cost $54,000 and after World War II was turned over by the 
government to a privately organized two-hundred-thousand-dollar 
corporation formed by about 300 subscribers - averaging a $666 
gamble. This corporation hoped to organize rhe mass production of 
the physically realized and three-timcs-rcfined government-paid-for 
prototype. Beech Aircraft had its production engineering department 
plan the tooling and complete an estimate of producing the Dymaxion 
Dwelling Machine at a rate of 20,000 per year. Beech then made a firm 
offer to produce them at that rate for $1,800 each, delivered in Wichita 
minus the kitchen equipment and other electrical appliances to be 
provided by General Electric on a rental basis of $200 a year. Beech 
required, however, that a ten-miilion-dollar tooling cost be provided 
by outside finance. This was not raised because there existed no high- 
speed, one-day, "turnkey" - no marketing, distributing, and installing 
service industry. Prepayment checks for 37,000 unsolicited orders had 
to be returned. The hopefully-into-mass-production gamble of the 
private corporation occurred despite my two-fold warning that (1) 
experience had by then taught me that the gains accruing to my work 
apparently were distributable only to everybody and only as techno- 
economic advantage profits for all humanity and (2) that while I was 
producing an important prototype dwelling machine suitable for 
mass production at a low cost, there existed as yet no distribution 
and maintenance service industry (and that the latter would require a 
development period taking another third of a century). 

No one has ever won their direct monetary gains by their invesrment- 
for-profit bets on my artifact-inventing and - developing concepts. 
I have always been saddened by this because the backers* motives were 
most often greatly affected by a personal affection for me. Fortunately, 
this gambling on the financial success of my work despite my warnings 
seems altogether to have ceased a third of a century ago. 



40 GUINEA PiG 8 



With several hundred thousand geodesic domes, millions of my 
world maps and books, and structural and mechanical artifacts now 
distributed and installed around the world, I have realized new 
and ever greater degrees of technical advantaging of society and 
its individuals. 1 have continually increased the knowledge of the 
means of accomplishing across-the-board and world-around advances 
in technological abilities to produce more economically effective 
structures and machinery that do ever more work with ever less 
pounds of materials, ergs of energy, and seconds of time per function 
-all accomplished entirely within the visible structural inventions and 
invisible (alloying, electronic, etc.) realms of technology. Twelve years 
ago I had learned enough to be able to state publicly that humanity 
had now passed through an evolutionary inflection point whereafter, 
for the first time in history, it is irrefutably demonstrable that a 
ten-year design revolution that employs all the physical resources 
of humanity (now majorly invested in killingry technology) and 
transforms weaponry scrap into livingry technology, can, within ten 
design-scicnce-revolution years, have all humanity enjoying a higher 
standard of living - interminably sustainable - than any humans have 
ever experienced, while concurrently phasing out all further everyday 
uses of fossil fuels or atomic energy. We can live handsomely using 
only our daily income of the Suns and gravity's multi-way- 
intergencrated energies. 

This omni-humanity cco-tcchnical breakthrough opportunity 
involves the successful inauguration of the industrial mass production 
of the dwelling machines and all other geodesic and tensegrity, air- 
deliverable, move-in-today, environmental controls. The technology 
for producing the dwelling machines, their air deliverability, their 
energy harvesting and conserving, and their prolonged autonomy 
of operation, has now reached the service industry launching stage. 
The dwelling machine service industry will not sell houses but will 
only rent them (as with rental cars or telephones). Much of the dead 
U.S. automobile-manufacturing industry can and probably will be 
retooled to produce the dwelling machines that will be needed to 
upgrade the deployed phases of living of four billion humans. The 
environment-controlling service industry will provide city-size domes 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 4! 



for protecting and housing humanity's convergent activities 
and the dwelling machine will accommodate all humanity's 
divergent activities. 

My part in this half-century-long technological development has 
all been fulfilled or occurred as an absolute miracle. From what I have 
learned I can say - at this most critical moment in all the history of 
humanity - that whether wc are going to stay here or not depends 
entirely on each and all of our individually attained and maintained 
integrities of reasoning and acting and not on any politically or 
religiously accepted or power-imposed socioeconomic-credo-system 
or financial reforms. 

At the outset of my 1927 commitment to exploring for that 
which only the individual could do effectively for all humanity, 
while depending entirely on the unpromiscd-to-him backing of 
his enterprise only by God, it became immediately evident that if 
indeed the undertaking became affirmatively supported by God, it 
would entail many extraordinary physical and metaphysical insights 
regarding both human and cosmic affairs. I asked myself, u (i) Can 
you trust yourself never to turn to your own exclusive advantage 
the insights entrusted to you only for the realization of benefits for 
ail humanity and Universe itself? (z) Can you also be sure that you 
will never exploit your insight by publicly declaring yourself to be 
a special *son of God' or a divinely ordained mystic leader? (3) Can 
you trust yourself to remember that you qualified for this functioning 
only because you were an out-and-out throwaway? (4) Can you trust 
yourself to reliably report these facts to others when they applaud you 
for the success of the experiment with which you were entrusted?" 

Fortunately, I can, may, and do report to you that I have never 
broken that trust nor have 1 ever been tempted to do so. 

I do not deem it to be a breaking of that trust when - entirely 
unsolicited by me or by my family or by any of those working with 
me on my staff - individuals or organizations outside my domain 
come spontaneously to me or my staff to employ me as a speaker, 
author, architect, or consultant. It is these unsolicited, uncontrived, 
spontaneous short-engagement employments of me in one role or 
another, plus - on rare occasions - an unsolicited outright gift to me 
of money, materials, tools, working space, commissions for designs, 



42 GUINEA PIG B 



orders for specific products, etc., which altogether uncontrived 
employments and unsought gifts I have classified for you as the 
"miracles," always unforeseeable-in-advancc, which have financed or 
implemented my technical initiatives. 

I hope this book will prove to be an encouraging example of what 
the little, average human being can do if you have absolute faith in the 
eternal cosmic intelligence we call God, 



R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 43 



PATENTS 



"I said, 'How do we find out how to use our minds and experience to 
the highest advantage of others in the shortest possible time?' That 
was the challenge. Out of this, in due course, came a great many 
designs, because I said to myself, *I must commit myself to reforming 
the environment and not man; being absolutely confident that if you 
give man the right environment he will behave favorably.'" 

-Quoted from Buckmimter Fuiier An Autobiographical Monologue/Scenario, 
by Robert Snyder, fiagejp 

The following patents were the results of this commitment of Bucky's: 

1. Stockade: Building Structure (1927) U.S. Patent 1,633,702 

2. Stockade: Pneumatic Forming Process (1927) U.S. Patent 1,634,900 

3. 4D House (1928) Application abandoned by 
Buckminster Fuller, leaving prior art evidence 
in patent office Hies. 

4. Dyinaxion Car (1937) 

5. Dymaxion Bathroom (1940) 

6. Dymaxion Deployment Unit (sheet) (1944) 

7. Dymaxion Deployment Unit (frame) (1944) 

8. Dymaxion Map { 1 946) 

9. Dymaxion House (Wichita) (1946) 

10. Geodesic Dome (1954) 

11. Paperboard Dome (1959) 

12. Plydome(i959) 

13. Catenary (Geodesic Tent) (1959) 

14. Octet Truss (1961) 

15. Tcnsegrity (1962) 
x6. Submurislc (Undersea Island) (1963) 



U.S. Patent 2,101,057 
U.S. Patent 2,220,482 
U.S. Patent 2,343,764 
U.S. Patent 2,35*1419 
U.S. Patent 2,393,676 

U.S. Patent 2,682,235 
U.S. Patent 2,881,717 
U.S. Patent 2,905,1 13 
U.S. Patent 2,914,074 
U.S. Patent 2,986,241 
U.S. Patent 3,063,521 
U.S. Patent 3,080,583 



17. Aspcnsion (Suspension Building) (1964) 

18. Monohex (Geodesic Structures) (1965) 

19. Laminar Dome (1965) 

20. Octa Spinner (1965) Application abandoned by 
Buckminster Fuller, leaving prior art evidence 
in patent office files. 

StarTenscgrity (OctahedralTruss) (1967) 
Rowing Needles ( Watcrcraft) (1970) 
Geodesic Hcxa-pent (1974) 
Floatable Breakwater (1975) 
Non-symmetrical Tcnsegrity (1975) 
Floating Breakwater (1979) 
Tenscgrity Truss (1980) 



21. 
22. 
*3- 

25. 
26. 



27 



28. Hanging Storage Self Unit (1983) 



U.S. 
U.S. 
U.S. 



U.S. 
U.S. 
U.S. 
U.S. 
U.S. 
U.S. 
U.S. 
U.S. 



Patent 3,i39>957 
Patent 3,i97>9*7 
Patent 3,203,144 



Patent 3,354,591 
Patent 3,524,422 
Patent 3,810,336 
Patent 3,863,455 
Patent 3,866,366 
Patent 4,136,994 
Patent 4,207,715 
Patent 4,377,114 



HONORARY DOCTORATE CITATIONS 



1. Design, North Carolina Sate College of Agriculture and Engineering; 
Raleigh, North Carolina (1954) 

2. Arts, University of Michigan; Ann Arbor, Michigan (1955) 

3. Science, Washington University; St. Louis, Missouri (1657) 

4. Arts, Southern Illinois University; Carbondale, Illinois (1959) 

5. Humane Letters, Rollins College; Winter Park, Florida (i960) 

6. Letters, Clemson College; Clcmson, South Carolina (1964) 

7. Fine Arts, University of New Mexico; Albuquerque, New Mexico (1964) 

8. Science, University of Colorado; Boulder, Colorado (1964) 

9. Humane Letters, Monmouth College; Monmouth, Illinois (1964) 

10. Humane Letters, Long Island University, Zeckendorf Campus; 
Brooklyn, New York (1966) 

n. Humane Letters, San Jose State College; San Jose, California (1966) 

12. Fine Arts, California College of Arts and Crafts; 
Oakland, California (1966) 

13. Engineering, Clarkson College of Technology; 
Postdam, New York (1967) 

14. Fine Arts, Ripon College; Ripon, Wisconsin (1968) 

15. Humane Letters, Dartmouth College; Hanover, New Hampshire (1968) 

16. Humane Letters, New England College; Henniker, New Hampshire {1968) 

17. Humane Letters, University of Rhode Island; Kinston, Rhode Island (1968) 

18. Architectural Engineering, University of Wisconsin; 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1969) 

19. Fine Arts, Boston College; Boston, Massachusetts (1969) 

20. Science, Bates College; Lcwiston, Maine (1969) 

2 1 . Fine Arts, College of Art and Design; 
Minneapolis, Minnesota (1970) 

22. Laws, Park College; Parkville, Missouri (1970) 

23. Humane Letters, Brandcis University; Waltham, Massachusetts (1970) 

24. Humane Letters, Columbia College; Chicago, Illinois (1970) 



25. Science and Humane Letters* Wilbcrforce University; 
Wilbcrforce, Ohio (1970) 

26. Fine and Applied Arts* Southeastern Massachusetts University; 
North Dartmouth, Massachusetts (1971) 

27. Laws* Grinell College; Grinncll, Iowa (1972) 

28. Laws, Emerson College; Boston, Massachusetts (1972) 

29. Science, University of Maine; Orono, Maine (1972) 

30. Laws, Nasson College; Springvale, Maine (1973) 

31. Fine Arts, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Troy, New York (1973) 
32* Literature, Beaver College; Gfenside, Pennsylvania (1973) 

33. Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana (1974) 

34. Humane Letters, Saint Joseph s College; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

35. Science, Pratt Institute; Brooklyn, New York (1974) 

36. Science, McGill University; Montreal, Quebec, Canada (1974) 

37. Humane Letters, Hobart and William Smith Colleges of the Seneca; 
Geneva, New York (1975) 

38. Science, Hahnemann Medical College & Hospital of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (197S) 

39. Humane Letters* Southern Ilinois University; 
Edwardsville, Illinois (1979) 

40. Humane Letters, Alaska Pacific University; Anchorage, Alaska (1979) 

4 1 . Humane Letters, Roosevelt University; Chicago, Illinois (1980) 

42. Humanities, Georgian Court College; Lakewood, New Jersey (1980) 



BOOKS BY R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER 



1. 4D Timclock, 1928 

2. Nine Chains to the Moon, 1938 

3. The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller, i960 

4. Education Automation, 1962 

5. Untitled Epic Poem on the History of Industrialization, 1962 

6. Ideas and Integrities, 1963 

7. No More Second Hand God, 1963 

8. R. Buckminster Fuller on Education, 1963 

9. World Design Science Decade Documents, 1965-1975 

10. What I Have Learned "How Little I Know*', 1968 

11. Utopia or Oblivion 1969 

12. Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth, 1969 

13. Hie Buckminster Fuller Reader, 1970 

14. Buckminstcr Fuller to Children of Earth, 1972 

15. Intuition, 1972 

16. Earth, Inc., 1973 

17. Tetrascroll: Goldilocks and the Three Bears, 1975 

18. Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, 1975 
19- And It Came to Pass - Not to Stay, 1976 

20. Synergetics Folio, 1979 

21. Synergetics 2: Further Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, 1979 

22. Buckminster Fuller Sketchbook, 1980 

23. Critical Path, 1981 

24. Grunch of Giants, 1983 

25. Inventions: The Patented Works of R. Buckminstcr Fuller, 1983 
26 Humans in Universe (with Anwar Dil), 1983 

27. The Artifacts of R. Buckminster Fuller, 1984 

28. Cosmography, 1992